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More than a school

Writing

Purpose of the Curriculum

(What will a high quality Writing education do for our children?)

Writing down ideas fluently depends on effective transcription: that is, on spelling quickly and accurately through knowing the relationship between sounds and letters (phonics) and understanding the morphology (word structure) and orthography (spelling structure) of words. Effective composition involves forming, articulating and communicating ideas, and then organising them coherently for a reader. This requires clarity, awareness of the audience, purpose and context, and an increasingly wide knowledge of vocabulary and grammar. Writing also depends on fluent, legible and, eventually, speedy handwriting.

  • Pupils should have the opportunity to write narratives, explanations, descriptions, comparisons, summaries and evaluations
  • Pupils must have the opportunity to rehearse, understand and consolidate what they have heard or read. See also spoken language focus document
  • The curriculum is split into two main areas transcription ( spelling and handwriting) and composition (articulating ideas and structuring them into speech and writing)
  • Pupils must be taught to plan, revise and evaluate their learning.
  • Pupils must learn to write down their ideas fluently and effectively.
  • Pupils must understand the link between letters and sounds. Also understand the morphology (word structure) and orthography (spelling structure). See spelling focus document for further detail
  • Pupils must learn how to articulate and communicate their ideas and organise them for their readers.
  • Pupils must be aware of their audience, purpose and context demonstrating a wide understanding of vocabulary and grammar
  • Their improving writing is also dependent on fluent, legible and, eventually, speedy handwriting. See handwriting focus document for further detail.

Aim of the Curriculum

(What does the Writing curriculum aim to ensure all pupils know or can do?)

  • Acquire a wide vocabulary, an understanding of grammar and knowledge of linguistic conventions for reading, writing and spoken language.
  • Appreciate our rich and varied literary heritage.
  • Write clearly, accurately and coherently, adapting their language and style in and for a range of contexts, purposes and audiences.
  • Use discussion in order to learn; they should be able to elaborate and explain clearly their understanding and ideas. 

Key Stage 1 Curriculum Overview 

Year 1

Pupils’ writing during year 1 will generally develop at a slower pace than their reading. This is because they need to encode the sounds they hear in words (spelling skills), develop the physical skill needed for handwriting, and learn how to organise their ideas in writing.

Pupils entering year 1 who have not yet met the early learning goals for literacy should continue to follow their school’s curriculum for the Early Years Foundation Stage to develop their word reading, spelling and language skills. However, these pupils should follow the year 1 programme of study in terms of the books they listen to and discuss, so that they develop their vocabulary and understanding of grammar, as well as their knowledge more generally across the curriculum.

Year 2

In writing, pupils at the beginning of year 2 should be able to compose individual sentences orally and then write them down. They should be able to spell correctly many of the words covered in year 1 (see English Appendix 1). They should also be able to make phonically plausible attempts to spell words they have not yet learnt. Finally, they should be able to form individual letters correctly, so establishing good handwriting habits from the beginning.

Key Stage 2 Curriculum Overview 

Year 3/4

Pupils should be able to write down their ideas with a reasonable degree of accuracy and with good sentence punctuation. Teachers should therefore be consolidating pupils’ writing skills, their vocabulary, their grasp of sentence structure and their knowledge of linguistic terminology. Teaching them to develop as writers involves teaching them to enhance the effectiveness of what they write as well as increasing their competence. Teachers should make sure that pupils build on what they have learnt, particularly in terms of the range of their writing and the more varied grammar, vocabulary and narrative structures from which they can draw to express their ideas. Pupils should be beginning to understand how writing can be different from speech. Joined handwriting should be the norm; pupils should be able to use it fast enough to keep pace with what they want to say.

Year 5/6:

Pup   Pupils should be able to write down their ideas quickly. Their grammar and punctuation should be broadly accurate. Pupils’ spelling of most words taught so far should be accurate and they should be able to spell words that they have not yet been taught by using what they have learnt about how spelling works in English.

During years 5 and 6, teachers should continue to emphasise pupils’ enjoyment and understanding of language, especially vocabulary, to support their reading and writing. Pupils’ knowledge of language, gained from stories, plays, poetry, non-fiction and textbooks, will support their increasing fluency as readers, their facility as writers, and their comprehension. As in years 3 and 4, pupils should be taught to enhance the effectiveness of their writing as well as their competence.

Key Stage 1 Objectives 

Year 1

Composition:

Write sentences by:

  • saying out loud what they are going to write about
  • composing a sentence orally before writing it
  • sequencing sentences to form short narratives
  • re-reading what they have written to check that it makes sense
  • discuss what they have written with the teacher or other pupils
  • read aloud their writing clearly enough to be heard by their peers and the teacher.

Vocabulary, grammar and punctuation:

  • develop their understanding of the concepts set out in English Appendix 2 by:
  • leaving spaces between words
  • joining words and joining clauses using and
  • beginning to punctuate sentences using a capital letter and a full stop, question mark or exclamation mark
  • using a capital letter for names of people, places, the days of the week, and the personal pronoun ‘I’
  • learning the grammar for year 1 in English Appendix 2
  • use the grammatical terminology in English Appendix 2 in discussing their writing. 

Key Stage 2 OBJECTIVES 

Year 3/4

Composition:

Plan their writing by:

  • discussing writing similar to that which they are planning to write in order to understand and learn from its structure, vocabulary and grammar
  • discussing and recording ideas
  • draft and write by:
  • composing and rehearsing sentences orally (including dialogue), progressively building a varied and rich vocabulary and an increasing range of sentence structures (English Appendix 2)
  • organising paragraphs around a theme
  • in narratives, creating settings, characters and plot
  • in non-narrative material, using simple organisational devices [for example, headings and sub-headings]
  • evaluate and edit by:
  • assessing the effectiveness of their own and others’ writing and suggesting improvements
  • proposing changes to grammar and vocabulary to improve consistency, including the accurate use of pronouns in sentences
  • proof-read for spelling and punctuation errors
  • read aloud their own writing, to a group or the whole class, using appropriate intonation and controlling the tone and volume so that the meaning is clear.

Vocabulary, grammar and punctuation:

  • develop their understanding of the concepts set out in English Appendix 2 by:
  • extending the range of sentences with more than one clause by using a wider range of conjunctions, including when, if, because, although
  •  using the present perfect form of verbs in contrast to the past tense
  • choosing nouns or pronouns appropriately for clarity and cohesion and to avoid repetition
  • using conjunctions, adverbs and prepositions to express time and cause
  • using fronted adverbials
  • learning the grammar for years 3 and 4 in English Appendix 2
  • indicate grammatical and other features by:
  • using commas after fronted adverbials
  • indicating possession by using the possessive apostrophe with plural nouns
  • using and punctuating direct speech
  • use and understand the grammatical terminology in English Appendix 2 accurately and appropriately when discussing their writing and reading.

Year  5/6

Composition

Plan their writing by:

  • identifying the audience for and purpose of the writing, selecting the appropriate form and using other similar writing as models for their own
  •  noting and developing initial ideas, drawing on reading and research where necessary
  • in writing narratives, considering how authors have developed characters and settings in what pupils have read, listened to or seen performed
  • draft and write by:
  • selecting appropriate grammar and vocabulary, understanding how such choices can change and enhance meaning
  • in narratives, describing settings, characters and atmosphere and integrating dialogue to convey character and advance the action
  • précising longer passages
  • using a wide range of devices to build cohesion within and across paragraphs
  • using further organisational and presentational devices to structure text and to guide the reader [for example, headings, bullet points, underlining]

Evaluate and edit by:

  • assessing the effectiveness of their own and others’ writing
  • proposing changes to vocabulary, grammar and punctuation to enhance effects and clarify meaning
  • ensuring the consistent and correct use of tense throughout a piece of writing
  • ensuring correct subject and verb agreement when using singular and plural, distinguishing between the language of speech and writing and choosing the appropriate register
  • proof-read for spelling and punctuation errors

Vocabulary, grammar and punctuation

Develop their understanding of the concepts set out in English Appendix 2 by:

  • recognising vocabulary and structures that are appropriate for formal speech and writing, including subjunctive forms
  • using passive verbs to affect the presentation of information in a sentence
  • using the perfect form of verbs to mark relationships of time and cause
  • using expanded noun phrases to convey complicated information concisely
  • using modal verbs or adverbs to indicate degrees of possibility
  • using relative clauses beginning with who, which, where, when, whose, that or with an implied (i.e. omitted) relative pronoun
  • learning the grammar for years 5 and 6 in English Appendix 2

Indicate grammatical and other features by:

  • using commas to clarify meaning or avoid ambiguity in writing
  • using hyphens to avoid ambiguity
  • using brackets, dashes or commas to indicate parenthesis
  • using semi-colons, colons or dashes to mark boundaries between independent clauses
  • using a colon to introduce a list
  • punctuating bullet points consistently
  • use and understand the grammatical terminology in English Appendix 2 accurately and appropriately in discussing their writing and reading. 

Knowledge or Skills relevant to our school

Key Stage 1

  • Writing to support pupils for the end of KS1 SATs test. Including Year 2 SPAG test from 2016 and existing teacher based writing assessments.
  • Pupils to make 5 points progress on average each year
  • Progress to be documented in class writing assessment folders.

Knowledge or Skills relevant to our school

Key Stage 2

  • All Year 6 pupils to be ready for end of KS2 writing assessment.
  • Pupils to make 3.6 point progress in average each year.
  • Progress to be documented in class writing assessment folders.